compression Module

Ionut-Razvan Ionita

Edited by

Ionut-Razvan Ionita

Revision History
Revision $Revision: 5895 $$Date$

Table of Contents

1. Admin Guide
1.1. Overview
1.2. How it works
1.3. Usage cases
1.4. Dependencies
1.4.1. OpenSIPS Modules
1.5. External Libraries or Applications
1.6. Exported Parameters
1.6.1. mc_level (int)
1.7. Exported Functions
1.7.1. mc_compress([algo], flags, [whitelist])
1.7.2. mc_compact([whitelist])
1.7.3. mc_decompress()
1.8. Compression performance test for sip messages

List of Tables

1.1. mc_compress performance test results

List of Examples

1.1. Set mc_level parameter
1.2. mc_compress usage
1.3. mc_compress usage
1.4. mc_compress usage
1.5. mc_decompress usage

Chapter 1. Admin Guide

1.1. Overview

This module implements message compression/decompression and base64 encoding for sip messages using deflate and gzip algorithm/headers. Another feature of this module is reducing headers to compact for as specified in SIP RFC's, sdp body codec unnecessary description removal (for codecs 0-97), whitelist for headers not be removed (excepting necessary headers).

1.2. How it works

The module is using zlib library to implement compression and base64 encoding for converting the message to human readable characters. It also uses callbacks to do the compression/compaction of the message in order for this operations to be done after all the other script functions have been applied to the message.

1.3. Usage cases

As we know, udp fragmentation is a big problem these days, so this module comes to try making the message smaller by any means. The module can be used to compress the body or some headers found in the message or it can decompress compressed messages. There are more possibilities to do this: the body can be compressed along with the specified headers or the headers can be compressed isolated from the body in a specific header.

Also the module does message compaction: reduction of sip header names to short form (for example "Via" becomes 'v' and so on), sdp body codec attributes unnecesary description ("a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000" becomes "a=rtpmap:0"), unwanted headers removal by specfing the ones you want to keep in a whitelist.

The module also does message decompresion and base64 decoding. It can detect the algorithm used for compression from the Content-Encoding header. At this moment only gzip and deflate algorithms are supported.

1.4. Dependencies

1.4.1. OpenSIPS Modules

The following modules must be loaded before this module:

  • None

1.5. External Libraries or Applications

The following libraries or applications must be installed before running OpenSIPS with this module loaded:

  • zlib-dev - the development libraries of zlib.

1.6. Exported Parameters

1.6.1. mc_level (int)

This parameter ranges from 1 to 9 and it specifies the level of compression you want to do. Default is 6. 9 is the best, but the longest time consuming algorithm and 1 is the worst. If, by mistake, you set a lower or a higher level, the default, 6, will be used, but you will receive a warning.

Example 1.1.  Set mc_level parameter

modparam("mc", "mc_level", "3")

1.7. Exported Functions

1.7.1.  mc_compress([algo], flags, [whitelist])

This function will compress the current message as specified in the parameters. Keep in mind that the compression is done just before the message is sent, so that all your lumps can be applied.

Meaning of the parameters is as follows:

  • algo - The algorithm used for compression. Currently implemented are deflate ('0') and gzip ('1'). The algo parameter can have the following types:

    • integer - the compression algorithm is statically assigned

    • pvar - the compression algorithm is the value of an existing pseudo-variable (as integer value)

  • flags - Specifies on what to apply the compression and where to put the result of the compression. The flags parameter can have the following types:

    • string - the flags parameter is statically assigned

    • pvar - the flags paramater is the value of an existing pseudo-variable (as string value)

    The flags parameter can have the following values:

    • b - specifies that the body of the message shall be compressed. Notice that if the message has no body, the flag will have no effect.

    • h - specifies that all the headers, except the mandatory ones (which will be specified in "whitelist" parameter section) and the ones in the whitelist shall be compressed.

    • s - the headers and the body shall be compressed Separately, meaning that a new header named "Comp-Hdrs" will be created, and this header will keep the content of the compressed headers. Also, "Headers-Encoding" header will be created in order to keep the algorithm used to compress the headers. If this flag is not specified, the headers and the body (if 'b' and 'h' flags are specified) will be compressed alltogether in the new body of the message.

    • e - specify that you want base64 Encoding. If you do not specify this flag, by default the module will send the raw compressed message in deflate/gzip format.

  • whitelist - header names list, separated by '|' which will specify which headers shall not be compressed, along with the mandatory ones, which can never be compressed. The mandatory headers are the following: VIA, FROM, TO, CSEQ, ROUTE, RECORD_ROUTE, CALLID. Also, CONTENT_TYPE is mandatory only if CONTENT-LENGTH > 0. Also, in case you do not want to use body compression, the Content-Length header will become a mandatory header, which can not be compressed. In case you do want body compression, the old Content-Length Header will be compressed, and a new content length will be calculated. When you will want to do decompression, the compressed length will be removed, and the content length header will be the same as the one before the compression.

This function can be used from REQUEST_ROUTE, LOCAL_ROUTE, FAILURE_ROUTE.

Example 1.2. mc_compress usage

if (!mc_compress("0", "bhs", "Max-Forwards|Subject|P-Asserted-Identity"))
	xlog("compression failed\n");

Example 1.3. mc_compress usage

$avp(algo) = "1";
$var(flags) = "bs";
$var(list) = "Max-Forwards | Contact";
mc_compres("$avp(algo", "$var(flags", "$var(list");
xlog("compression registered\n");

1.7.2.  mc_compact([whitelist])

This function will realise four different things: headers which are not mandatory and are not in the whitelist will be removed, headers of same type will be put together, separated by ',', header names which have a short form will be reduced to that short form and sdp rtpmap attribute headers which contain a value lower than 98 will be removed, because it is no longer needed. No lumps affected by this function, because it is applied after almost all the processing is done. The mc_compact supported short forms are:

  • c - Content-Type (RFC 3261)

  • f - From (RFC 3261)

  • i - Call-ID (RFC 3261)

  • k - Supported (RFC 3261)

  • l - Content-Length (RFC 3261)

  • m - Contact (RFC 3261)

  • s - Subject (RFC 3261)

  • t - To (RFC 3261)

  • v - Via (RFC 3261)

  • x - Session-Expires (RFC 4028)

Meaning of the parameters is as follows:

  • whitelist - Whitelist of headers not to be removed, except from the mandatory ones. The whitelist header names must pe separated by '|'. The algo parameter can have the following types:

    • string - the whitelist is statically assigned

    • pvar - the whitelist is the value of an existing pseudo-variable (as integer value)

This function can be used from REQUEST_ROUTE, LOCAL_ROUTE, FAILURE_ROUTE.

Example 1.4. mc_compress usage

if (!mc_compact("Max-Forwards|P-Asserted-Identity"))
	xlog("compaction failed\n");

1.7.3.  mc_decompress()

This function does the reverse of mc_compress, meaning that it does base64 decoding and gzip/deflate decompression. Keep in mind that gzip decompression is a little bit more efficient because it is being known the size of the compressed buffer as against deflate which does not hold the size of the buffer, so the decompression will be made in a static buffer.

This function requests no parameters.

WARNING: This function replaces the original buffer of the message with the decompressed buffer, so any processing you do to the message will not be taken into consideration. Try applying the decompression function, before you do any other processing to the message.

This function can be used from REQUEST_ROUTE, LOCAL_ROUTE, FAILURE_ROUTE.

Example 1.5. mc_decompress usage

if (!mc_decompress())
	xlog("decompression failed\n");

1.8. Compression performance test for sip messages

The following results have been obtained using the compression function included in the module. Using this results, you can improve the usage of this module, in order to compress only when you think it is favorable enough for you. The algorithm used is deflate for all cases because gzip is always 16 bytes higher than deflate, which represents the uncompressed size modulo 4GB. For the subtests in the same test, the same SIP message have been used.

Table 1.1. mc_compress performance test results

Test NumberSubtest NumberBody SizeHeaders to Compress SizeCompressed ContentCompressed Content SizeCompression levelCompressed sizeCompression ratio
1117982Body + Headers26112840.91
1217982Body + Headers26192840.91
21838392Body + Headers123018981.36
22838392Body + Headers123098721.41
311329607Body + Headers1936113961.38
321329607Body + Headers1936913521.43
341329607Body + Headers132998041.65