cfgutils Module

Henning Westerholt

1und1 Internet AG

Carsten Bock

BASIS AudioNet GmbH

Elena-Ramona Modroiu

rosdev.ro

Sergio Gutierrez

Revision History
Revision $Revision: 5901 $$Date$

Table of Contents

1. Admin Guide
1.1. Overview
1.2. Dependencies
1.3. Exported Parameters
1.3.1. initial_probability (string)
1.3.2. hash_file (string)
1.3.3. shvset (string)
1.3.4. varset (string)
1.3.5. lock_pool_size (integer)
1.4. Exported Functions
1.4.1. rand_event([probability])
1.4.2. rand_set_prob(probabiltiy)
1.4.3. rand_reset_prob()
1.4.4. rand_get_prob()
1.4.5. sleep(time)
1.4.6. usleep(time)
1.4.7. abort()
1.4.8. pkg_status()
1.4.9. shm_status()
1.4.10. set_count(pvar name, result pvar name)
1.4.11. set_select_weight(pseudovarible_name)
1.4.12. ts_usec_delta(t1_sec, t1_usec, t2_sec, t2_usec, delta)
1.4.13. check_time_rec(time_string)
1.4.14. get_static_lock(string)
1.4.15. release_static_lock(string)
1.4.16. get_dynamic_lock(string)
1.4.17. release_dynamic_lock(string)
1.4.18. strings_share_lock(string1, string2)
1.5. MI Commands
1.5.1. rand_set_prop
1.5.2. rand_reset_prob
1.5.3. rand_get_prob
1.5.4. check_config_hash
1.5.5. get_config_hash
1.5.6. shv_set
1.5.7. shv_get
1.6. Exported pseudo-variables
1.6.1. $env(name)
1.6.2. $RANDOM
1.6.3. $ctime(name)
1.6.4. $shv(name)

List of Examples

1.1. initial_probability parameter usage
1.2. hash_file parameter usage
1.3. shvset parameter usage
1.4. varset parameter usage
1.5. Setting lock_pool_size module parameter
1.6. rand_event() usage
1.7. rand_set_prob() usage
1.8. rand_reset_prob() usage
1.9. rand_get_prob() usage
1.10. sleep usage
1.11. usleep usage
1.12. abort usage
1.13. pkg_status usage
1.14. shm_status usage
1.15. set_count usage
1.16. set_select_weight usage
1.17. ts_usec_delta usage
1.18. check_time_rec usage
1.19. get_static_lock usage
1.20. release_static_lock usage
1.21. get_dynamic_lock usage
1.22. release_dynamic_lock usage
1.23. strings_share_lock usage
1.24. rand_set_prob usage
1.25. rand_reset_prob usage
1.26. rand_get_prob usage
1.27. check_config_hash usage
1.28. get_config_hash usage
1.29. shv_set usage
1.30. shv_get usage
1.31. env(name) pseudo-variable usage
1.32. RANDOM pseudo-variable usage
1.33. ctime(name) pseudo-variable usage
1.34. shv(name) pseudo-variable usage

Chapter 1. Admin Guide

1.1. Overview

Useful extensions for the server configuration.

The cfgutils module can be used to introduce randomness to the behaviour of the server. It provides setup functions and the “rand_event” function. This function return either true or false, depending on a random value and a specified probability. E.g. if you set via fifo or script a probability value of 5%, then 5% of all calls to rand_event will return false. The pseudovariable “$RANDOM” could be used to introduce random values e.g. into a SIP reply.

The benefit of this module is the probability of the decision can be manipulated by external applications such as web interface or command line tools. The probability must be specified as percent value, ranging from 0 to 100.

The module exports commands to FIFO server that can be used to change the global settings via FIFO interface. The FIFO commands are: “set_prob”, “reset_prob” and “get_prob”.

This module can be used for simple load-shedding, e.g. reply 5% of the Invites with a 503 error and a adequate random Retry-After value.

The module provides as well functions to delay the execution of the server. The functions “sleep” and “usleep” could be used to let the server wait a specific time interval.

It can also hash the config file used from the server with a (weak) cryptographic hash function on startup. This value is saved and can be later compared to the actual hash, to detect modifications of this file after the server start. This functions are available as the FIFO commands “check_config_hash” and “get_config_hash”.

1.2. Dependencies

The module depends on the following modules (in the other words the listed modules must be loaded before this module):

  • none

1.3. Exported Parameters

1.3.1. initial_probability (string)

The initial value of the probability.

Default value is “10”.

Example 1.1. initial_probability parameter usage

   
modparam("cfgutils", "initial_probability", 15)
   

1.3.2. hash_file (string)

The config file name for that a hash value should be calculated on startup.

There is no default value, is no parameter is given the hash functionality is disabled.

Example 1.2. hash_file parameter usage

   
modparam("cfgutils", "hash_file", "/etc/opensips/opensips.cfg")
   

1.3.3. shvset (string)

Set the value of a shared variable ($shv(name)). The parameter can be set many times.

The value of the parameter has the format: _name_ '=' _type_ ':' _value_

  • _name_: shared variable name

  • _type_: type of the value

    • i”: integer value

    • s”: string value

  • _value_: value to be set

Default value is “NULL”.

Example 1.3. shvset parameter usage

...
modparam("cfgutils", "shvset", "debug=i:1")
modparam("cfgutils", "shvset", "pstngw=s:sip:10.10.10.10")
...

1.3.4. varset (string)

Set the value of a script variable ($var(name)). The parameter can be set many times.

The value of the parameter has the format: _name_ '=' _type_ ':' _value_

  • _name_: shared variable name

  • _type_: type of the value

    • i”: integer value

    • s”: string value

  • _value_: value to be set

Default value is “NULL”.

Example 1.4. varset parameter usage

...
modparam("cfgutils", "varset", "init=i:1")
modparam("cfgutils", "varset", "gw=s:sip:11.11.11.11;transport=tcp")
...

1.3.5. lock_pool_size (integer)

The number of dynamic script locks to be allocated at OpenSIPS startup. This number must be a power of 2. (i.e. 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 ...)

Note that the lock_pool_size parameter only affects the number of dynamic locks created at startup. The pool of static locks only depends on the number of unique static strings supplied throughout the script to the set of static lock functions.

Default value is “32”.

Example 1.5. Setting lock_pool_size module parameter

modparam("cfgutils", "lock_pool_size", "64")

1.4. Exported Functions

1.4.1. rand_event([probability])

Return true or false, depending on a random value and a probability value. If probability parameter is given, it will override the global parameter set by rand_set_prob() function.

Example 1.6. rand_event() usage

...
if (rand_event()) {
  append_to_reply("Retry-After: 120\n");
  sl_send_reply("503", "Try later");
  exit;
};
# normal message processing follows
...

1.4.2. rand_set_prob(probabiltiy)

Set the “probability” of the decision.

probability” can have a value from the range 0..99.

Example 1.7. rand_set_prob() usage

...
rand_set_prob("4");
...

1.4.3. rand_reset_prob()

Reset the probability back to the inital value.

Example 1.8. rand_reset_prob() usage

...
rand_reset_prob();
...

1.4.4. rand_get_prob()

Return the current probability setting, e.g. for logging purposes.

Example 1.9. rand_get_prob() usage

...
rand_get_prob();
   

1.4.5.  sleep(time)

Waits "time" seconds.

Meaning of the parameters is as follows:

  • time - Time to wait in seconds. String may be a pseudovariable. In case that variable does not contain a numerical value, it is evaluated to zero seconds.

This function can be used from REQUEST_ROUTE, ONREPLY_ROUTE, FAILURE_ROUTE, BRANCH_ROUTE.

Example 1.10. sleep usage

...
sleep("1");
...
$avp(secs)="10";
sleep("$avp(secs)");
...
			

1.4.6.  usleep(time)

Waits "time" micro-seconds.

Meaning of the parameters is as follows:

  • time - Time to wait in micro-seconds. The string may contain a pseudovariable. In case that pseudovar does not contain a numerical value, it is evaluated to zero seconds.

This function can be used from REQUEST_ROUTE, ONREPLY_ROUTE, FAILURE_ROUTE, BRANCH_ROUTE.

Example 1.11. usleep usage

...
usleep("500000"); # sleep half of sec
...
			

1.4.7.  abort()

Debugging function that aborts the server. Depending on the configuration of the server a core dump will be created.

This function can be used from REQUEST_ROUTE, ONREPLY_ROUTE, FAILURE_ROUTE, BRANCH_ROUTE.

Example 1.12. abort usage

...
abort();
...
			

1.4.8.  pkg_status()

Debugging function that dumps the status for the private (PKG) memory. This information is logged to the default log facility, depending on the general log level and the memlog setting. You need to compile the server with activated memory debugging to get detailed informations.

This function can be used from REQUEST_ROUTE, ONREPLY_ROUTE, FAILURE_ROUTE, BRANCH_ROUTE.

Example 1.13. pkg_status usage

...
pkg_status();
...
			

1.4.9.  shm_status()

Debugging function that dumps the status for the shared (SHM) memory. This information is logged to the default log facility, depending on the general log level and the memlog setting. You need to compile the server with activated memory debugging to get detailed informations.

This function can be used from REQUEST_ROUTE, ONREPLY_ROUTE, FAILURE_ROUTE, BRANCH_ROUTE.

Example 1.14. shm_status usage

...
shm_status();
...
			

1.4.10.  set_count(pvar name, result pvar name)

Function that counts the values of a pseudovariable. It makes sense to call this function only for pseudovariables that can take more values (avp, headers).

The result is returned in the second parameter.

This function can be used from REQUEST_ROUTE, ONREPLY_ROUTE, FAILURE_ROUTE, BRANCH_ROUTE.

Example 1.15. set_count usage

...
set_count("$avp(10)", "$avp(result)");
...
			

1.4.11.  set_select_weight(pseudovarible_name)

This function selects an element from a set formed by the values of the pseudovariable name given as parameter. It applies the genetic algorithm - roulette-wheel selection to choose an element from a set. The probability of selecting a certain element is proportionate with its weight. It will return the index of that selected element.

This function can be used from REQUEST_ROUTE, ONREPLY_ROUTE, FAILURE_ROUTE, BRANCH_ROUTE.

Example 1.16. set_select_weight usage

...
$avp(21) = set_select_weight("$avp(10)");
...
			

1.4.12.  ts_usec_delta(t1_sec, t1_usec, t2_sec, t2_usec, delta)

This function returns the difference between two timestamps, specified in seconds and microseconds. The result is returned in the last parameter, expressed in microseconds.

This function can be used from REQUEST_ROUTE, ONREPLY_ROUTE, FAILURE_ROUTE, BRANCH_ROUTE.

Example 1.17. ts_usec_delta usage

...
ts_usec_delta("$avp(10)", "$avp(20)", "10", "300", "$avp(result)");
...
			

1.4.13.  check_time_rec(time_string)

The function returns a positive value if the specified time recurrence string matches the current time, or a negative value otherwise.

The syntax of each field is identical to the corresponding field from RFC 2445.

This function can be used from REQUEST_ROUTE, ONREPLY_ROUTE, FAILURE_ROUTE, BRANCH_ROUTE, LOCAL_ROUTE, STARTUP_ROUTE, TIMER_ROUTE, EVENT_ROUTE.

Meaning of the parameters is as follows:

  • time_string - Time recurrence string which will be matched against the current time. Its fields are separated by "|" and the order in which they are given is: "dtstart | dtend | duration | freq | until | interval | byday | bymday | byyday | byweekno | bymonth". None of the fields following "freq" is used unless "freq" is defined. If the string ends in multiple null fields, they can all be ommited.

    The time_string parameter can have the following types:

    • string - the time recurrence string is statically assigned

    • pvar - the string is the value of an existing pseudo-variable (as string value)

Example 1.18. check_time_rec usage

...
# Only passing if still in 2012
if (check_time_rec("20120101T000000|20121231T235959")) {
	xlog("Current time matches the given interval\n");
}
...
# Only passing if less than 30 days have passed from "dtstart"
if (check_time_rec("20121101T000000||p30d")) {
	xlog("Current time matches the given interval\n");
}
...
			

1.4.14.  get_static_lock(string)

The function obtains the index of a specific lock (predetermined in the fixup phase of the OpenSIPS script) and attempts to acquire it. In case the lock is taken by another process, script execution will halt until the lock is released. Attempting to acquire the lock a second time by the same process, without releasing it first, will result in a deadlock.

The static lock functions guarantee that two different strings will never point to the same lock, thus avoiding introducing unnecessary (and transparent!) synchronization between processes. Their disadvantage is the nature of their parameters (static strings), making them inappropriate in certain scenarios.

Meaning of the parameters is as follows:

  • string - String to be used in order to obtain the index of a static lock. The string parameter can have the following types:

    • string - the string is statically assigned

This function can be used from REQUEST_ROUTE, FAILURE_ROUTE, ONREPLY_ROUTE, BRANCH_ROUTE, LOCAL_ROUTE, STARTUP_ROUTE, TIMER_ROUTE, EVENT_ROUTE.

Example 1.19. get_static_lock usage

# acquire and release a static lock 
...
get_static_lock("Zone_1");
...
release_static_lock("Zone_1");
...

1.4.15.  release_static_lock(string)

The function obtains the index of a specific lock (predetermined in the fixup phase of the OpenSIPS script) and releases it. Nothing will happen if the lock is not acquired.

Meaning of the parameters is as follows:

  • string - String to be used in order to obtain the index of a static lock. The string parameter can have the following types:

    • string - the string is statically assigned

This function can be used from REQUEST_ROUTE, FAILURE_ROUTE, ONREPLY_ROUTE, BRANCH_ROUTE, LOCAL_ROUTE, STARTUP_ROUTE, TIMER_ROUTE|EVENT_ROUTE.

Example 1.20. release_static_lock usage

# acquire and release a static lock 
...
get_static_lock("Zone_1");
...
release_static_lock("Zone_1");
...

1.4.16.  get_dynamic_lock(string)

The function obtains the index of a lock from the pool by performing a hash function on the given variable string and attempts to acquire it. In case the lock is taken by another process, script execution will halt until the lock is released. Attempting to acquire the lock a second time by the same process, without releasing it first, will result in a deadlock.

The dynamic lock functions have the advantage of allowing string pseudo-variables to be given as parameters, but the drawback to this is that two strings may have the same hashed value, thus pointing to the same lock. As a consequence, either two totally separate regions of the script will be synchronized (they will not execute in parallel), or a process could end up in a deadlock by acquiring two locks in a row on two different (but equally hashed) strings. To address the latter issue, use the strings_share_lock() function to test if two strings generate equal hash values.

Meaning of the parameters is as follows:

  • string - String to be hashed in order to obtain the index of a lock from the pool. The string parameter can have the following types:

    • pvar - the string is the value of an existing pseudo-variable (as string value)

This function can be used from REQUEST_ROUTE, FAILURE_ROUTE, ONREPLY_ROUTE, BRANCH_ROUTE, LOCAL_ROUTE, STARTUP_ROUTE, TIMER_ROUTE|EVENT_ROUTE.

Example 1.21. get_dynamic_lock usage

...
# acquire and release a dynamic lock on the "Call-ID" Header of a SIP message
if (!get_dynamic_lock("$ci")) {
	xlog("Error while getting dynamic lock!\n");
}
...
if (!release_dynamic_lock("$ci") {
	xlog("Error while releasing dynamic lock!\n");
}
...

1.4.17.  release_dynamic_lock(string)

The function obtains the index of a lock from the pool by performing a hash function on the given variable string and releases it. Nothing will happen if the lock is not acquired.

Meaning of the parameters is as follows:

  • string - String to be hashed in order to obtain the index of a lock from the pool. The string parameter can have the following types:

    • pvar - the string is the value of an existing pseudo-variable (as string value)

This function can be used from REQUEST_ROUTE, FAILURE_ROUTE, ONREPLY_ROUTE, BRANCH_ROUTE, LOCAL_ROUTE, STARTUP_ROUTE, TIMER_ROUTE|EVENT_ROUTE.

Example 1.22. release_dynamic_lock usage

...
# acquire and release a dynamic lock on the "Call-ID" Header of a SIP message
if (!get_dynamic_lock("$ci")) {
	xlog("Error while getting dynamic lock!\n");
}
...
if (!release_dynamic_lock("$ci") {
	xlog("Error while releasing dynamic lock!\n");
}
...

1.4.18.  strings_share_lock(string1, string2)

A function used to test if two strings will generate the same hash value. Its purpose is to prevent deadlocks resulted when a process successively acquires two dynamic locks on two strings which happen to point to the same lock.

Theoretically, the chance of two strings generating the same hash value decreases proportionally to the increase of the lock_pool_size parameter. In other words, the more dynamic locks you configure the module with, the higher the chance that all individual protected regions of your script will run in parallel, without waiting for each other.

Meaning of the parameters is as follows:

  • string1, string2 - Strings which will have their hash values compared. The string parameters can have the following types:

    • string - statically assigned

    • pvar - values of existing pseudo-variables (as string values)

This function can be used from REQUEST_ROUTE, FAILURE_ROUTE, ONREPLY_ROUTE, BRANCH_ROUTE, LOCAL_ROUTE, STARTUP_ROUTE, TIMER_ROUTE|EVENT_ROUTE.

Example 1.23. strings_share_lock usage

...
# Proper way of acquiring two dynamic locks successively
if (!get_dynamic_lock("$avp(1)")) {
	xlog("Error while getting dynamic lock!\n");
}

if (!strings_share_lock("$avp(1)", "$avp(2)") {
	if (!get_dynamic_lock("$avp(2)")) {
		xlog("Error while getting dynamic lock!\n");
	}
}
...
if (!strings_share_lock("$avp(1)", "$avp(2)") {
	if (!release_dynamic_lock("$avp(2)") {
		xlog("Error while releasing dynamic lock!\n");
	}
}

if (!release_dynamic_lock("$avp(1)") {
	xlog("Error while releasing dynamic lock!\n");
}
...

1.5. MI Commands

1.5.1. rand_set_prop

Set the probability value to the given parameter. The parameter should be a percent value.

The parameter value must be a number from 0 to 99.

Example 1.24. rand_set_prob usage

...
$ opensipsctl fifo rand_set_prob 10
...

1.5.2. rand_reset_prob

Reset the probability value to the inital start value.

This command don't need a parameter.

Example 1.25.  rand_reset_prob usage

...
$ opensipsctl fifo rand_reset_prob
...

1.5.3. rand_get_prob

Return the actual probability setting.

The function return the actual probability value.

Example 1.26. rand_get_prob usage

...
$ opensipsctl fifo get_prob
The actual probability is 50 percent.
...

1.5.4. check_config_hash

Check if the actual config file hash is identical to the stored one.

The function returns 200 OK if the hash values are identical, 400 if there are not identical, 404 if no file for hashing has been configured and 500 on errors. Additional a short text message is printed.

Example 1.27. check_config_hash usage

...
$ opensipsctl fifo check_config_hash
The actual config file hash is identical to the stored one.
...

1.5.5. get_config_hash

Return the stored config file hash.

The function returns 200 OK and the hash value on success or 404 if no file for hashing has been configured.

Example 1.28. get_config_hash usage

...
$ opensipsctl fifo get_config_hash
1580a37104eb4de69ab9f31ce8d6e3e0
...

1.5.6. shv_set

Set the value of a shared variable ($shv(name)).

Parameters:

  • _name_: shared variable name

  • _type_: type of the value

    • int”: integer value

    • str”: string value

  • _value_: value to be set

MI FIFO Command Format:

		:shv_set:_reply_fifo_file_
		_name_
		_type_
		_value_
		_empty_line_
		

Example 1.29. shv_set usage

...
$ opensipsctl fifo shv_set debug int 0
...

1.5.7. shv_get

Get the value of a shared variable ($shv(name)).

Parameters:

  • _name_: shared variable name. If this parameter is missing, all shared variables are returned.

MI FIFO Command Format:

		:shv_get:_reply_fifo_file_
		_name_
		_empty_line_
		

Example 1.30. shv_get usage

...
$ opensipsctl fifo shv_get debug
$ opensipsctl fifo shv_get
...

1.6. Exported pseudo-variables

1.6.1. $env(name)

This PV provides access to the environment variable 'name'.

Example 1.31. env(name) pseudo-variable usage

...
xlog("PATH environment variable is $env(PATH)\n");
...
				 

1.6.2. $RANDOM

Returns a random value from the [0 - 2^31) range.

Example 1.32. RANDOM pseudo-variable usage

...
$avp(10) = ($RANDOM / 16777216); # 2^24
if ($avp(10) < 10) {
   $avp(10) = 10;
}
append_to_reply("Retry-After: $avp(10)\n");
sl_send_reply("503", "Try later");
exit;
# normal message processing follows
   
				 

1.6.3. $ctime(name)

The PV provides access to broken-down time attributes.

The “name” can be:

  • sec - return seconds (int 0-59)

  • min - return minutes (int 0-59)

  • hour - return hours (int 0-23)

  • mday - return the day of month (int 0-59)

  • mon - return the month (int 1-12)

  • year - return the year (int, e.g., 2008)

  • wday - return the day of week (int, 1=Sunday - 7=Saturday)

  • yday - return the day of year (int, 1-366)

  • isdst - return daylight saving time status (int, 0 - DST off, >0 DST on)

Example 1.33. ctime(name) pseudo-variable usage

...
if ($ctime(year) == 2008) {
	xlog("request: $rm from $fu to $ru in year 2008\n");
}
...
				 

1.6.4. $shv(name)

It is a class of pseudo-variables stored in shared memory. The value of $shv(name) is visible across all opensips processes. Each “shv” has single value and it is initialized to integer 0. You can use “shvset” parameter to initialize the shared variable. The module exports a set of MI functions to get/set the value of shared variables.

Example 1.34. shv(name) pseudo-variable usage

...
modparam("cfgutils", "shvset", "debug=i:1")
...
if ($shv(debug) == 1) {
	xlog("request: $rm from $fu to $ru\n");
}
...