SNMPStats Module (Simple Network Management Protocal Statistic Module)

Jeffrey Magder

SOMA Networks, Inc.

Edited by

Jeffrey Magder

Revision History
Revision $Revision: 5901 $$Date$

Table of Contents

1. Admin Guide
1.1. Overview
1.1.1. General Scalar Statistics
1.1.2. SNMP Tables
1.1.3. Alarm Monitoring
1.2. How it works
1.2.1. How the SNMPStats module gets its data
1.2.2. How data is moved from the SNMPStats module to a NOC
1.3. Dependencies
1.3.1. OpenSIPS Modules
1.3.2. External Libraries or Applications
1.4. Exported Parameters
1.4.1. sipEntityType (String)
1.4.2. MsgQueueMinorThreshold (Integer)
1.4.3. MsgQueueMajorThreshold (Integer)
1.4.4. dlg_minor_threshold (Integer)
1.4.5. dlg_major_threshold (Integer)
1.4.6. snmpgetPath (String)
1.4.7. snmpCommunity (String)
1.5. Exported Functions
1.6. Installation and Running
1.6.1. Compiling the SNMPStats Module
1.6.2. Configuring SNMP daemon to allow connections from the SNMPStats module.
1.6.3. Configuring the SNMPStats module for communication with a Master Agent
1.6.4. Testing for a proper Configuration
2. Frequently Asked Questions

List of Examples

1.1. Setting the sipEntityType parameter
1.2. Setting the MsgQueueMinorThreshold parameter
1.3. Setting the MsgQueueMajorThreshold parameter
1.4. Setting the dlg_minor_threshold parameter
1.5. Setting the dlg_major_threshold parameter
1.6. Setting the snmpgetPath parameter
1.7. Setting the snmpCommunity parameter

Chapter 1. Admin Guide

1.1. Overview

The SNMPStats module provides an SNMP management interface to OpenSIPS. Specifically, it provides general SNMP queryable scalar statistics, table representations of more complicated data such as user and contact information, and alarm monitoring capabilities.

1.1.1. General Scalar Statistics

The SNMPStats module provides a number of general scalar statistics. Details are available in OPENSER-MIB, OPENSER-REG-MIB, OPENSER-SIP-COMMON-MIB, and OPENSER-SIP-SERVER-MIB. But briefly, these scalars are:

openserSIPProtocolVersion, openserSIPServiceStartTime, openserSIPEntityType, openserSIPSummaryInRequests, openserSIPSummaryOutRequest, openserSIPSummaryInResponses, openserSIPSummaryOutResponses, openserSIPSummaryTotalTransactions, openserSIPCurrentTransactions, openserSIPNumUnsupportedUris, openserSIPNumUnsupportedMethods, openserSIPOtherwiseDiscardedMsgs, openserSIPProxyStatefulness openserSIPProxyRecordRoute, openserSIPProxyAuthMethod, openserSIPNumProxyRequireFailures, openserSIPRegMaxContactExpiryDuration, openserSIPRegMaxUsers, openserSIPRegCurrentUsers, openserSIPRegDfltRegActiveInterval, openserSIPRegAcceptedRegistrations, openserSIPRegRejectedRegistrations, openserMsgQueueDepth. openserCurNumDialogs, openserCurNumDialogsInProgress, openserCurNumDialogsInSetup, openserTotalNumFailedDialogSetups

There are also scalars associated with alarms. They are as follows:

openserMsgQueueMinorThreshold, openserMsgQueueMajorThreshold, openserMsgQueueDepthAlarmStatus, openserMsgQueueDepthMinorAlarm, openserMsgQueueDepthMajorAlarm, openserDialogLimitMinorThreshold, openserDialogLimitMajorThreshold, openserDialogUsageState, openserDialogLimitAlarmStatus, openserDialogLimitMinorAlarm, openserDialogLimitMajorAlarm

1.1.2. SNMP Tables

The SNMPStats module provides several tables, containing more complicated data. The current available tables are:

openserSIPPortTable, openserSIPMethodSupportedTable, openserSIPStatusCodesTable, openserSIPRegUserTable, openserSIPContactTable, openserSIPRegUserLookupTable

1.1.3. Alarm Monitoring

If enabled, the SNMPStats module will monitor for alarm conditions. Currently, there are two alarm types defined.

  1. The number of active dialogs has passed a minor or major threshold. The idea is that a network operation centre can be made aware that their SIP servers may be overloaded, without having to explicitly check for this condition.

    If a minor or major condition has occured, then a openserDialogLimitMinorEvent trap or a openserDialogLimitMajorEvent trap will be generated, respectively. The minor and major thresholds are described in the parameters section below.

  2. The number of bytes waiting to be consumed across all of OpenSIPS's listening ports has passed a minor or major threshold. The idea is that a network operation centre can be made aware that a machine hosting a SIP server may be entering a degraded state, and to investigate why this is so.

    If the number of bytes to be consumed passes a minor or major threshold, then a openserMsgQueueDepthMinorEvent or openserMsgQueueDepthMajorEvent trap will be sent out, respectively.

Full details of these traps can be found in the distributions OPENSER-MIB file.

1.2. How it works

1.2.1. How the SNMPStats module gets its data

The SNMPStats module uses OpenSIPSs internal statistic framework to collect most of its data. However, there are two exceptions.

  1. The openserSIPRegUserTable and openserSIPContactTable rely on the usrloc modules callback system. Specifically, the SNMPStats module will receive callbacks whenever a user/contact is added to the system.

  2. The SNMPStats modules openserSIPMsgQueueDepthMinorEvent and openserSIPMsgQueueDepthMajorEvent alarms rely on the OpenSIPS core to find out what interfaces, ports, and transports OpenSIPS is listening on. However,the module will actually query the proc file system to find out the number of bytes waiting to be consumed. (Currently, this will only work on systems providing the proc file system).

1.2.2. How data is moved from the SNMPStats module to a NOC

We have now explained how the SNMPStats module gathers its data. We still have not explained how it exports this data to a NOC (Network Operations Centre) or administrator.

The SNMPStats module expects to connect to a Master Agent. This would be a SNMP daemon running either on the same system as the OpenSIPS instance, or on another system. (Communication can take place over TCP, so there is no restriction that this daemon need be on the same system as OpenSIPS).

If the master agent is unavailable when OpenSIPS first starts up, the SNMPStats module will continue to run. However, you will not be able to query it. Thankfully, the SNMPStats module continually looks for its master agent. So even if the master agent is started late, or if the link to the SNMPStats module is severed due to a temporary hardware failure or crashed and restarted master agent, the link will eventually be re-established. No data should be lost, and querying can begin again.

To request for this data, you will need to query the master agent. The master agent will then redirect the request to the SNMPStats module, which will respond to the master agent, which will in turn respond to your request.

1.3. Dependencies

1.3.1. OpenSIPS Modules

The SNMPStats module provides a plethora of statistics, some of which are collected by other modules. If the dependent modules are not loaded then those specific statistics will still be returned, but with zeroed values. All other statistics will continue to function normally. This means that the SNMPStats module has no hard/mandatory dependencies on other modules. There are however, soft dependencies, as follows:

  • usrloc - all scalars and tables relating to users and contacts are dependent on the usrloc module. If the module is not loaded, the respective tables will be empty.

  • dialog - all scalars relating to the number of dialogs are dependent on the presence of the dialog module. Furthermore, if the module is not loaded, then the openserDialogLimitMinorEvent, and openserDialogLimitMajorEvent alarm will be disabled.

The contents of the openserSIPMethodSupportedTable change depending on which modules are loaded.

1.3.2. External Libraries or Applications

The following libraries or applications must be installed before running OpenSIPS with this module loaded:

  • Net SNMP DEV (libsnmp-dev on debian) - SNMP library (development files) must be installed at the time of compilation. Furthermore, there are several shared objects that must be loadable at the time SNMPStats is loaded. This means that SNMP lib must be installed (but not necessarily running) on the system that has loaded the SNMPStats module. (Details can be found in the compilation section below).

  • SNMP tools(snmp on debian) - SNMP tools package to provide the snmpget command (internally used by the SNMPStats module.

1.4. Exported Parameters

1.4.1. sipEntityType (String)

This parameter describes the entity type for this OpenSIPS instance, and will be used in determining what is returned for the openserSIPEntityType scalar. Valid parameters are:

registrarServer, redirectServer, proxyServer, userAgent, other

Example 1.1. Setting the sipEntityType parameter

...
modparam("snmpstats", "sipEntityType", "registrarServer")
modparam("snmpstats", "sipEntityType", "proxyServer")
...
		

Note that as the above example shows, you can define this parameter more than once. This is of course because a given OpenSIPS instance can take on more than one role.

1.4.2. MsgQueueMinorThreshold (Integer)

The SNMPStats module monitors the number of bytes waiting to be consumed by OpenSIPS. If the number of bytes waiting to be consumed exceeds a minor threshold, the SNMPStats module will send out an openserMsgQueueDepthMinorEvent trap to signal that an alarm condition has occured. The minor threshold is set with the MsgQueueMinorThreshold parameter.

Example 1.2. Setting the MsgQueueMinorThreshold parameter

...
modparam("snmpstats", "MsgQueueMinorThreshold", 2000)
...
		

If this parameter is not set, then there will be no minor alarm monitoring.

1.4.3. MsgQueueMajorThreshold (Integer)

The SNMPStats module monitors the number of bytes waiting to be consumed by OpenSIPS. If the number of bytes waiting to be consumed exceeds a major threshold, the SNMPStats module will send out an openserMsgQueueDepthMajorEvent trap to signal that an alarm condition has occured. The major threshold is set with the MsgQueueMajorThreshold parameter.

Example 1.3. Setting the MsgQueueMajorThreshold parameter

...
modparam("snmpstats", "MsgQueueMajorThreshold", 5000)
...
		

If this parameter is not set, then there will be no major alarm monitoring.

1.4.4. dlg_minor_threshold (Integer)

The SNMPStats module monitors the number of active dialogs. If the number of active dialogs exceeds a minor threshold, the SNMPStats module will send out an openserDialogLimitMinorEvent trap to signal that an alarm condition has occured. The minor threshold is set with the dlg_minor_threshold parameter.

Example 1.4. Setting the dlg_minor_threshold parameter

...
  modparam("snmpstats", "dlg_minor_threshold", 500)
...
		

If this parameter is not set, then there will be no minor alarm monitoring.

1.4.5. dlg_major_threshold (Integer)

The SNMPStats module monitors the number of active dialogs. If the number of active dialogs exceeds a major threshold, the SNMPStats module will send out an openserDialogLimitMajorEvent trap to signal that an alarm condition has occured. The major threshold is set with the dlg_major_threshold parameter.

Example 1.5. Setting the dlg_major_threshold parameter

...
  modparam("snmpstats", "dlg_major_threshold", 750)
...
		

If this parameter is not set, then there will be no major alarm monitoring.

1.4.6. snmpgetPath (String)

The SNMPStats module provides the openserSIPServiceStartTime scalar. This scalar requires the SNMPStats module to perform a snmpget query to the master agent. You can use this parameter to set the path to your instance of SNMP's snmpget program.

Default value is “/usr/local/bin/”.

Example 1.6. Setting the snmpgetPath parameter

...
modparam("snmpstats", "snmpgetPath",     "/my/custom/path/")
...
		

1.4.7. snmpCommunity (String)

The SNMPStats module provides the openserSIPServiceStartTime scalar. This scalar requires the SNMPStats module to perform a snmpget query to the master agent. If you have defined a custom community string for the snmp daemon, you need to specify it with this parameter.

Default value is “public”.

Example 1.7. Setting the snmpCommunity parameter

...
modparam("snmpstats", "snmpCommunity", "customCommunityString")
...
		

1.5. Exported Functions

Currently, there are no exported functions.

1.6. Installation and Running

There are several things that need to be done to get the SNMPStats module compiled and up and running.

1.6.1.  Compiling the SNMPStats Module

In order for the SNMPStats module to compile, you will need to have installed the packages providing SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) libray and development files.

The SNMPStats modules makefile requires that the SNMP script "net-snmp-config" can run.

1.6.2.  Configuring SNMP daemon to allow connections from the SNMPStats module.

The SNMPStats module will communicate with the SNMP Master Agent. This communication happens over a protocol known as AgentX. This means you need to have an SMP daemon (acting as Master Agent) running - it can be on the same machine or on a different one.

First you need to turn on AgentX support. The exact location of the configuration file (snmpd.conf) may vary depending on your system. By default, via a package installation, it is located in:

    /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf.
	

At the very end of the file add the following line:

    master agentx
	

The line tells SNMP daemon to act as an AgentX master agent, so that it can accept connections from sub-agents such as the SNMPStats module.

There is still one last step. Even though we have configured SNMP to have AgentX support, we still need to tell the daemon which interface and port to listen to for AgentX connections. This is done also via the configuration file (snmpd.conf) :

    agentXSocket    tcp:localhost:705
	

This tells SNMP daemon to act as a master agent, listening on the localhost UDP interface at port 705.

1.6.3.  Configuring the SNMPStats module for communication with a Master Agent

The previous section explained how to set up a SNMP master agent to accept AgentX connections. We now need to tell the SNMPStats module how to communicate with this master agent. This is done by giving the SNMPStats module its own SNMP configuration file. The file must be named "snmpstats.conf", and must be in the same folder as the "snmpd.conf" file that was configured above. By default this would be:

    /etc/snmp/snmpstats.conf
	

The default configuration file included with the distribution can be used, and contains the following:

    agentXSocket tcp:localhost:705
	

The above line tells the SNMPStats module to register with the master agent on the localhost, port 705. The parameters should match up with the snmpd process. Note that the master agent (snmpd) does not need to be present on the same machine as OpenSIPS. The localhost could be replaced with any other machine.

1.6.4.  Testing for a proper Configuration

As a quick test to make sure that the SNMPStats module sub-agent can succesfully connect to the SNMP Master agent, be sure the snmpd service is stopped (/etc/init.d/snmpd stop) and manually start snmpd with the following:

    snmpd -f -Dagentx -x tcp:localhost:705 2>&1 | less
	

You should see something similar to the following:

    No log handling enabled - turning on stderr logging
    registered debug token agentx, 1
    ...
    Turning on AgentX master support.
    agentx/master: initializing...
    agentx/master: initializing...   DONE
    NET-SNMP version 5.3.1
	

Now, start up OpenSIPS in another window. In the snmpd window, you should see a bunch of:

    agentx/master: handle pdu (req=0x2c58ebd4,trans=0x0,sess=0x0)
    agentx/master: open 0x81137c0
    agentx/master: opened 0x814bbe0 = 6 with flags = a0
    agentx/master: send response, stat 0 (req=0x2c58ebd4,trans=0x0,sess=0x0)
    agentx_build: packet built okay
	

The messages beginning with "agentx" are debug messages stating that something is happening with an AgentX sub-agent, appearing because of the -Dagentx snmpd switch. The large number of debug messages appear at startup as the SNMPStats module registers all of its scalars and tables with the Master Agent. If you receive these messages, then SNMPStats module and SNMP daemon have both been configured correctly.

Chapter 2. Frequently Asked Questions

2.1.

Where can I find more about SNMP?

There are many websites that explain SNMP at all levels of detail. A great general introduction can be found at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SNMP If you are interested in the nitty gritty details of the protocol, then please look at RFC 3410. RFC 3410 maps out the many other RFCs that define SNMP, and can be found at http://www.rfc-archive.org/getrfc.php?rfc=3410

2.2.

Where can I find more about NetSNMP?

NetSNMP source code, documentation, FAQs, and tutorials can all be found at http://net-snmp.sourceforge.net/.

2.3.

Where can I find out more about AgentX?

The full details of the AgentX protocol are explained in RFC 2741, available at: http://www.rfc-archive.org/getrfc.php?rfc=2741

2.4.

Why am I not receiving any SNMP Traps?

Assuming you've configured the trap thresholds in opensips.cfg with something similar to:

    modparam("snmpstats", "MsgQueueMinorThreshold", 1234)
    modparam("snmpstats", "MsgQueueMajorThreshold", 5678)

    modparam("snmpstats", "dlg_minor_threshold", 500)
    modparam("snmpstats", "dlg_minor_threshold", 600)
		

Then either OpenSIPS is not reaching these thresholds (which is a good thing), or you haven't set up the trap monitor correctly. To prove this to yourself, you can start NetSNMP with:

    snmpd -f -Dtrap -x localhost:705
		

The -f tells the NetSNMP process to not daemonize, and the -Dtrap enables trap debug logs. You should see something similar to the following:

    registered debug token trap, 1
    trap: adding callback trap sink            ----- You should see both
    trapsess: adding to trap table             ----- of these lines.
    Turning on AgentX master support.
    trap: send_trap 0 0 NET-SNMP-TC::linux
    trap: sending trap type=167, version=1
    NET-SNMP version 5.3.1
		

If the two lines above did not appear, then you probably have not included the following in your snmpd.conf file.

    trap2sink machineToSendTrapsTo:machinesPortNumber.
		

When a trap has been received by snmpd, the following will appear in the above output:

    sent_trap -1 -1 NET-SNMP-TC::linus
    sending trap type=167, version=1
		

You'll also need a program to collect the traps and do something with them (such as sending them to syslog). NetSNMP provides snmptrapd for this. Other solutions exist as well. Google is your friend.

2.5.

OpenSIPS refuses to load the SNMPStats module. Why is it displaying "load_module: could not open module snmpstats.so"?

On some systems, you may receive the following error at stdout or the log files depending on the configuration.

    ERROR: load_module: could not open module </usr/local/lib/opensips/modules/snmpstats.so>: 
           libnetsnmpmibs.so.10: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory.
		

This means one of two things:

  1. You did not install NetSNMP. ("make install" if building from source)

  2. The dynamic linker cannot find the necessary libraries.

In the second case, the fix is as follows:

  1. find / -name "libnetsnmpmibs*"

    • You will find a copy unless you haven't installed NetSNMP. Make note of the path.

  2. less /etc/ld.so.conf

    • If the file is missing the path from step 1, then add the path to ld.so.conf

  3. ldconfig

  4. Try starting OpenSIPS again.

Alternatively, you may prefix your startup command with:

    LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/path/noted/in/step/one/above
		

For example, on my system I ran:

    LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/local/lib opensipsctl start
		

2.6.

How can I learn what all the scalars and tables are?

All scalars and tables are named in the SNMPStats module overview. The files OPENSER-MIB, OPENSER-REG-MIB, OPENSER-SIP-COMMON-MIB and OPENSER-SIP-SERVER-MIB contain the full definitions and descriptions. Note however, that the MIBs may actually contain scalars and tables which are currently not provided by the SNMPStats module. Therefore, it is better to use NetSNMP's snmptranslate as an alternative. Take the openserSIPEntityType scalar as an example. You can invoke snmptranslate as follows:

    snmptranslate -TBd openserSIPEntityType
		

Which would result in something similar to the following:

    -- FROM       OPENSER-SIP-COMMON-MIB
    -- TEXTUAL CONVENTION OpenSIPSSIPEntityRole
    SYNTAX        BITS {other(0), userAgent(1), proxyServer(2), redirectServer(3), registrarServer(4)} 
    MAX-ACCESS    read-only
    STATUS        current
    DESCRIPTION   " This object identifies the list of SIP entities this
                   row is related to. It is defined as a bit map.  Each
                   bit represents a type of SIP entity.
                   If a bit has value 1, the SIP entity represented by
                   this row plays the role of this entity type.
  
                   If a bit has value 0, the SIP entity represented by
                   this row does not act as this entity type
                   Combinations of bits can be set when the SIP entity
                   plays multiple SIP roles."
		

2.7.

Why do snmpget, snmpwalk, and snmptable always time out?

If your snmp operations are always returning with: "Timeout: No Response from localhost", then chances are that you are making the query with the wrong community string. Default installs will most likely use "public" as their default community strings. Grep your snmpd.conf file for the string "rocommunity", and use the result as your community string in your queries.

2.8.

How do I use snmpget?

NetSNMP's snmpget is used as follows:

    snmpget -v 2c -c theCommunityString machineToSendTheMachineTo scalarElement.0
    		

For example, consider an snmpget on the openserSIPEntityType scalar, run on the same machine running the OpenSIPS instance, with the default "public" community string. The command would be:

    snmpget -v2c -c public localhost openserSIPEntityType.0
		

Which would result in something similar to:

    OPENSER-SIP-COMMON-MIB::openserSIPEntityType.0 = BITS: F8 \
		other(0) userAgent(1) proxyServer(2)          \
		redirectServer(3) registrarServer(4) 
		

2.9.

How do I use snmptable?

NetSNMP's snmptable is used as follows:

    snmptable -Ci -v 2c -c theCommunityString machineToSendTheMachineTo theTableName
    		

For example, consider the openserSIPRegUserTable. If we run the snmptable command on the same machine as the running OpenSIPS instance, configured with the default "public" community string. The command would be:

    snmptable -Ci -v 2c -c public localhost openserSIPRegUserTable
		

Which would result in something similar to:

    index openserSIPUserUri openserSIPUserAuthenticationFailures
        1       DefaultUser                                    0
        2            bogdan                                    0
        3    jeffrey.magder                                    0
		

2.10.

Where can I find more about OpenSIPS?

Take a look at http://www.opensips.org/.

2.11.

Where can I post a question about this module?

First at all check if your question was already answered on one of our mailing lists:

E-mails regarding any stable OpenSIPS release should be sent to and e-mails regarding development versions should be sent to .

If you want to keep the mail private, send it to .

2.12.

How can I report a bug?

Please follow the guidelines provided at: https://github.com/OpenSIPS/opensips/issues.