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Documentation -> Manuals -> Manual 2.2 -> Asynchronous Statements

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Asynchronous Statements v2.2
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1.  Description

Asynchronous script operations are one of the key features of OpenSIPS 2.2. The main advantage of using them is the fact that they allow the performance of the OpenSIPS script to scale with a high number of requests per second even when doing blocking I/O operations such as MySQL queries, exec commands or HTTP requests.


Using asynchronous logic over simply forking a high number of children in order to scale (50+ processes) also has the advantage of optimizing the usage of system resources. By requiring less processes to complete the same amount of work in the same amount of time, process context switching is minimized and overall CPU usage is improved. Less processes will also eat up less system memory.

2.  Module requirements

The asynchronous script logic is based on the transaction module (tm) - it must be loaded. The SIP transaction is automatically and transparently created (if not existing yet) when an async operation is started. This transaction contains all necessary information to properly suspend script execution (e.g. it stores the updated SIP message, along with all $avp variables).

3.  Script syntax and usage

Usage is quite straightforward. If your blocking function supports asynchronous mode (read the module documentation for this), then you can just throw it in the following function call:

async(blocking_function(...), resume_route);

Note that resume_route has to be a simple route.


When a function is called in the asynchronous manner (see below), the script is immediately halted, so any code you write after the async() call will be ignored! The current OpenSIPS worker will launch the asynchronous operation, after which it will continue to process other pending tasks (queued SIP messages, timer jobs or possibly other async operations!). As soon as all data is available, it will run the given resume route and continue processing, with a minimum of idle time.

The return code of the function executed in async mode is available in the very beginning of the resume route in the $rc or $retcode variable. Also, all the output parameters (variables in function parameters used to carry output values) will be available in resume route.


route
{
    /* preparation code */
    ...
    async(avp_db_query("SELECT credit FROM users WHERE uid='$avp(uid)'", "$avp(credit)"), resume_credit);
    /* script execution is paused right away! */
}

route [resume_credit]
{
    if ($rc < 0) {
        xlog("error $rc in avp_db_query()\n");
        exit;
    }

    xlog("Credit of user $avp(uid) is $avp(credit)\n");
}


Data is copied over to the resume route as follows:


Preserved data (still available in resume route)

  • all $avp variables
  • all changes in current SIP message

Ignored data (not available anymore in resume route)

  • all $var variables

4.  List of async functions

The following functions may also be called asynchronously:

The async implementation is not limited to the above functions, but these are the first ones migrated to async support. More I/O related functions will be ported to the async support.

5.  Limitations

5.1  Async Engine Compatibility

The async engine is heavily dependent on non-blocking I/O features exposed by the underlying libraries -- a blocking I/O operation, such as an HTTP or an SQL query can only be made asynchronous if the library additionally provides both:

  • a non-blocking equivalent of the same, originally blocking function
  • after the non-blocking equivalent function is launched, the library must also provide a mechanism to extract a valid Linux file descriptor corresponding to the data transfer operation that has just been launched. The OpenSIPS async engine will poll on this fd, and will trigger internal state updates each time new data is available. When the blocking operation is finished, the "resume route" gets called, and the async operation is finalized.

5.2  TCP Connect Issues

Although they provide async functionality, some libraries only do this for the "transfer" part of the I/O operation, and NOT the initial TCP connect. Consequently, on some corner-case scenarios (e.g. the TCP connect hangs due to an unresponsive server, an in-between firewall which drops packets instead of rejecting them, etc.) the async operation may actually block!


Examples of modules which are affected by this limitation:

  • rest_client - although it reuses TCP connections on further requests, libcurl will block until a TCP connection is established from a given OpenSIPS worker. Should these TCP connects ever hang, so will the corresponding OpenSIPS worker.
  • db_mysql - similar to rest_client: although it reuses DB connections heavily, establishing each connection is a blocking operation, and cannot be made async due to the nature of the library.

Mitigation: depending on your specific setup, you may be severely impacted by these blocking TCP connects or little to no at all. For the former case, we suggest forking external processes responsible for your blocking operations and invoke them asynchronously, using constructs such as:


async(exec("curl my_host", "$var(response_body)"), resume_route);

or

async(exec("mysql-query 'SELECT * FROM subscriber...'", "$var(result_row)"), resume_route);

5.3  Allowed Routes

Since the async engine is tightly coupled with the transactional engine, async operations can, at best, only be launched in routes where a SIP transaction is present and is still awaiting completion. This includes:

  • request_route
  • onreply_route
  • local_route

Async operations performed on any other route types are subject to undefined behavior.


Page last modified on June 28, 2019, at 12:28 AM